Interview with a social insect scientist: Omar Urquizo

You can read Omar’s recent research article about reproductive and brood-rearing strategies in tree hoppers here.

IS: Who are you, and what do you do?

OU: My name is Omar N. Urquizo. I do research at the Chemical Ecology Laboratory of Universidad San Francisco Xavier in Chuquisaca, Bolivia in the field of the evolution of social insects in contexts of behavioral ecology and their interactions with plants, other insects, or arthropods.

IS: How did you develop an interest in your research?

OU: I felt much curiosity about arthropods in 2013 when I participated in a conference where two investigators presented their work on morphological diversity in bees and treehopper behaviouOU: So, I wanted to investigate and learn more about insect–plant interactions, and I decided to request admission as a student of the Chemical Ecology Laboratory. There, I started supporting research on treehopper vibrational communication in a mating context. I was really surprised because we could listen to signals (substrate-borne signals) that usually are not easy to perceive, thanks to bioacoustic tools. So, I learned about the phenomena of this group; one of them, brood parasitism, was reported in my first study. In treehoppers, there are different social levels during which we can observe awesome behaviours. I believe that we must get to know what we have around us, from the smallest and mimetic individual to the biggest and remarkable individual.

IS: What is your favorite social insect, and why?

OU: My favourite social insects are treehoppers, because within the Membracidae family the species display different strange forms and colours in their pronotum, being cryptic or aposematic depending on the species. But also, this group has peculiar behaviours during vibrational communication during mating, maternal care, and feeding search, which depend on the level of social organization of each species.

IS: What is the best moment/discovery in your research so far? What made it so memorable?

OU: I think that the best moment in my research was data collection because I learned several things about the natural history of Alchisme grossa; however, there are several biggest moments, like when we finally saw genetic results that allow us to open a discussion about intraspecific brood parasitism in treehoppers.

IS: Do you teach or do outreach/science communication? How do you incorporate your research into these areas?

OU: I do not teach nor do outreach formally; however, I always share my knowledge with other students and researchers. I think that science communication is very important for displaying our work at different levels, be it a school, university, or simply individuals who enjoy and are surprised to know new things about nature. I am eager to incorporate my research into an educational video in an entertaining way.

IS: What do you think are some of the important current questions in social insect research, and what’s essential for future research?

OU: I think that an important question is: What are the mechanisms that lead to different levels of social organization, from community levels, through evolutionary or/and ecological contexts, to individual levels, such as physiological processes? I think that if we can understand all social interactions, we can make the best decisions when we face different problems with conservation, pest control, or natural resources.

IS: What research questions generate the biggest debate in social insect research at the moment?

OU: I feel that the research that has generated more intense debate is the evolutionary processes leading to social behaviours. In this area, it is not uncommon to discover new findings that change a way of thinking and strengthens or renews a postulate.

IS: What is the last book you read? Would you recommend it? Why or why not?

OU: In science,I am reading Evolutionary Analysis by F. Scott F, but the last book I read was Communities’ Ecology by F. Jaksic. But also, I was reading Moby Dick by Herman Melville, as recreational reading. I recommend these books because the former contain concepts and research explained in very practical ways, and the last book because it is an interesting study of character within an adventure of pirates and whales.

IS: Outside of science, what are your favorite activities, hobbies, or sports?

OU: My favourite activities outside of science are photography and music. I think they are both ways to capture and express beauty and to demonstrate and communicate your feelings in an artistic way. I also love skating.

IS: How do you keep going when things get tough?

OU: I am a religious person, and my faith and family are my principal support in difficult times; they provide me moments of calm and peace. But also, when things get tough, I tend to remain calm and maintain clarity to act or make the best decision. I also like to go out to the city to attract good vibes.

IS: If you were to go live on an uninhabited island and could only bring three things, what would you bring? Why?

OU: I would take my family (is the most important to me), but if I only have to carry objects, I would carry a radio to communicate with them, a guitar, and a camera.

IS: Who do you think has had the most considerable influence on your science career?

OU: Carlos Pinto, who has been an extraordinary mentor to me. He has taught me that science can be made anywhere – that you just need to believe you can do it.

IS: What advice would you give to someone hoping to be a social insect researcher in the future?

OU: All research is valid, but it is best to work on a problem that really motivates you. And, of course, to put body and soul into your endeavours. In ecological research, observe each trait or behaviour mindfully with utmost patience. The insect world is small, but that makes it more fascinating, since we can analyse many processes. For example, studying large group behaviors is easier with insects than with big animals.

IS: What is your favorite place science has taken you?

OU: Outside Bolivia,I have only travelled to Santiago, Chile through science. There, I met very interesting researchers in many fields of science. Within Bolivia, several study trips have taken me to spectacular places.

IS: If you had unlimited funds to conduct whatever research you wanted, where would you go and what would you investigate?

OU: If I had unlimited funds, I would create a strong research university department in Sucre, Bolivia working in different areas of ecology. Within it, I would like to work in molecular ecology and evolution with native bees to describe interactions between species and other social behaviours.

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