Lessons learned from three years as Social Media Editor

Happy holidays social insect enthusiasts!

It’s been a big year, for many reasons. The Insectes Sociaux blog has had over six thousand readers worldwide, and we have continued to build our community over social media. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social insect scientists have shared their coping strategies and advice for others amid chaotic transitions in research and teaching while continuing to publish exciting research in our journal. I would like to take this opportunity to express my heartfelt thanks to all of the blog contributors and interviewees for providing some brilliant insight and candid stories during this time.

I’ve had a wonderful three years as Social Media Editor for Insectes Sociaux, but it’s time for me to move on. I have been pursuing a Ph.D. while I’ve held this position, and interacting with you all has enriched my scientific training and been instrumental in connecting me to the global social insect community. It is difficult to step away from such a rewarding experience, but life (as it tends to do) has taken me down different paths, and I can no longer give this position the time and energy it deserves. Daniela Römer has been working alongside me for many months now and is taking over the role completely.

Part of what makes Insectes Sociaux special is that it is a truly international journal, publishing science conducted by individuals at all career stages worldwide. This globality has made working for the journal all the more rewarding, as I have had the pleasure of seeking blog contributors diverse as the contributors to the journal. I have been reminded daily of the immense diversity and interconnectedness of science, and the field of social insect science in particular – something that makes this field incredibly fun and exciting. I hope to see an even greater expansion of our authors, audience, and research opportunities for social insect scientists around the world going forward.

Besides the regular inspiration I have gathered from our blog contributors, I have learned a lot about communicating science over social media and in blog form. I have compiled a few key takeaways from my experience as Social Media Editor:

Social insect scientists contain multitudes and are super friendly.

I have interviewed nearly fifty social insect scientists over the years and read interviews conducted by my counterparts Daniela and Bernie Wittwer. In every interview, I have discovered something unexpected, inspiring, or hilarious. I mean, y’all seriously know how to have a good time! From dangling above a pool of dolphins to spot a bee colony to embroidering and illustrating your study organisms, social insect scientists love to combine travel, adventure, and creativity with their research. I love that this community of scientists values and promotes a diversity of hobbies, activities, and lifestyles! I have also learned that it is way easier to reach out to scientists than I thought when I was a new graduate student. It can be intimidating to cold-email someone whose work you admire and who has been at the job for decades longer than you. But I have experienced overwhelming friendliness and enthusiasm in responses from scientists of all ages, career stages, and nationalities. No matter what career level you are at, if you have a question or simply admire someone’s work, reach out to them! Social insect scientists are an exceptionally friendly bunch.

Behind almost every study is a hidden motivation, an unexpected turn of events, or an adventure not reported in the paper.

The blog format is remarkable because it allows scientists to tell the backstory of their study – all the details that an academic paper format simply does not allow. Although we write academic papers in a way that makes it seem like we carried out our research in a very logical and straightforward manner, we all know that this is rarely the way it goes down in reality. Instead of a well-formulated research question succinctly coming to us in the lab, we observed a crazy ant behavior in the park. We then messed around with some ant workers in our basement at home until we had any sort of clue what might be going on. Instead of the clean 100 replicates we had planned, half the colonies died in the lab, someone mislabeled a microcentrifuge tube or two, the dog chewed on your lab notebook, or a pandemic interrupted behavioral trials. Sometimes “collecting colonies” means dressing from head-to-toe in a bee suit and tramping through the rainforest for miles by the light of a headlamp. And sometimes, “collecting data at 1-hour intervals for 24 hours” really entails staying up all night with your labmate as you play games and watch movies to keep each other awake. Academic journal articles never contain the full story, and often not the most exciting one. As scientists, we are trained to be as objective as possible, which is just what we need in analyzing and reporting the results of our work. However, we must remember the human side of science. The act of pursuing scientific inquiry is this amazing interplay between our intuition and our logic, and that’s why it’s such a human experience. How do we keep humanity in science? Through storytelling. And blogs are an excellent platform for storytelling. The origin story of your childhood that led to your scientific interests today. The people you met while traveling for fieldwork. The ways in which an experiment forged an unexpected friendship. When we tell our stories in an authentic, jargon-free voice, it is a catalyst for human connection around our science.

Communicating the results of our research can be simple and within reach for everyone.

Although there is a lot to be said for honing science communication skills, there is no reason why it needs to be a complicated endeavor. Communicating science is easily within everyone’s reach! I have learned some simple things everyone can easily do to make their science more accessible and engaging for everyone:

  1. PHOTOS: Everyone loves pictures and, nine times out of ten, will be drawn to them more than the PDF of your journal article. It doesn’t even matter much what the subject matter of the photo is – snap a photo of your study organism, experimental setup, or gel electrophoresis result – even if you think it’s a boring photo, chances are someone who doesn’t work with your study system will find it fascinating or at least intriguing. Think nobody will understand what the photo is depicting? That’s where the intrigue starts! In the end, it’s less important that your audience understands the image entirely and more important that it inspires questions and opens a conversation. In the end, science is an attempt to understand the beauty of the world, and photos can accomplish this too. Social media (Instagram, in particular) is a great place to share pictures because many people engage with these platforms every day, and posting a photo only takes a minute or two. 
  1. STORIES: Humans arguably love stories more than photos. And what’s better – we’re natural storytellers as a species. As mentioned above, chances are there is a backstory to your study. No need to write the next great novel or film a Discovery Channel show about it; simply tell the story to your neighbor, the person sitting next to you on an airplane, or your family at the dinner table. It will likely start a more in-depth conversation about your research, which is your chance to get into the details of your work if that’s what you want to do. 
  2. REACH OUT: Inspired by someone’s work and want to discuss research ideas? Send them an email – science communication doesn’t only have to be aimed at the general public. Notice that the journal where you just published has a blog or social media presence? Let them know that you would like to contribute – they are usually looking for scientists just like you to help them produce content. Notice that the journal does not have a blog or social media presence? Suggest they start one – it will make the science they publish more accessible, and they will likely gain a broader readership as a result—a win-win for everyone.

Stay kind, adventurous, and curious, social insect enthusiasts! And keep your eyes open for more social insect content from Daniela on our sites into the future.

Thanks again, everyone,

Madison Sankovitz

Ants can learn lots, fast

by Tomer Czaczkes

Based on research for the paper “T.J. Czaczkes and P. Kumar. In press. Very rapid multi-odour discrimination learning in the ant Lasius niger. Insectes Sociaux.”

Most people are shocked to hear that ants can learn. While the readers of this blog are probably not surprised by this, quite how good they are might come as a surprise – it certainly surprised me! In our recent study, Pragya Kumar and I found that Black Garden ants (Lasius niger) can learn at least two (most likely three) odour-sugar associations, having only experienced each combination twice. They can learn one association in just one visit.

A curious Lasius niger forager sporting a stylish blue gaster mark. Painting ants helps us follow our trained ant over multiple training visits.

The joys of comparative psychology:

Let’s unpack that: we were exploring discrimination learning, where the ant has to learn that one odour (e.g. rose) means very sweet sugar water, another (e.g. lemon) quite sweet, another (e.g. lavender) slightly sweet, and another (e.g. blackberry) just a teeny bit sweet. If the ant learns successfully, she should prefer rose to lemon, and lemon to lavender. They should never prefer blackberry when one of the other options is available. So, we let individually-marked ants up a bridge to find a drop of flavoured sugar, then let her go back to the nest, and when she came back for a second visit she found another drop with a different taste and a different sweetness. After she’s experienced each combination once or twice, we give her a choice on a Y-maze: for example, does she follow the arm which smells like lemon, or the arm which smells like lavender? By the way, the methods are all published in another Insectes Sociaux paper (Czaczkes, 2018). And if you have a 3D printer, you can print your own mazes too.

The 3D printer Y-maze we used, with added walls (not used in this experiment). Why not print yourself one?

Ants made mostly correct decisions, even if they only experienced each taste/quality combination once. Clever ants! So… why did I say that ants can learn “at least two” combinations? Well, we simply can’t be sure of more.

Consider our situation: Rose > lemon >  lavender >  blackberry. Firstly, they didn’t prefer lavender to blackberry. So, we’re down to three. Now, imagine that the ants never learned the second worst smell (lavender). What would her decisions look like? It would still prefer lemon > lavender, because lemon is better than nothing. So, we’re down to two we can be sure of. Now, we’re pretty sure they learned lavender, but we just couldn’t prove it in this setup!

This, to me, is the joy of comparative psychology – every experiment is like a logical puzzle, where evidence builds up, ruling out alternative explanations, until you run out of alternatives (or evidence). I admit, it’s hard work – or, at least, I find it hard. Sometimes I feel my brain creaking under the pressure. But it’s also very rewarding, when you’ve lined up your evidence, and can knock the alternatives out. Even finding the logical holes is fun, as happened in this experiment!

A lucky marked L. niger forager enjoying a drop of high quality sucrose solution. Yum!

Back to the ants   

So, L. niger ants can learn quite a lot, and fast. Why is that interesting? Firstly, it’s perhaps surprising, given how small their brains are. But enough e-ink has been spilled on this topic. More practically, this opens the door to performing complex training regimes and tests. A lot of psychological research involves asking the question: “which option do you prefer, A or B? How about C or D?”. Because we cannot simply ask animals, we have to train them to associate each option with a cue, and then see which they prefer. So, for example, we can ask if ants like to gamble by teaching them that lemon is a risky smell, but rose is a safe smell. Being able to quickly train ants to complex option sets can open the door to a much deeper understanding of how ants think, what they like, and how they make decisions.

References

Czaczkes T.J. 2018. Using T- and Y-mazes in myrmecology and elsewhere: a practival guide. Insectes Sociaux 65, 213-224

Simple behaviors – collective outcomes. How individuals affect group decisions.

By Stamatios Nicolis

Based on research for the paper “Nicolis, Pin, Calvo Martín, Planas-Sitjà and Deneubourg. In press. Sexual group composition and shelter geometry affect collective decision-making: the case of Periplaneta americana. Insectes Sociaux

Gregarious arthropods such as cockroaches, constitute the most widespread social species in the animal kingdom. Yet, as far as collective decision-making is concerned, most of the literature is focused on eusocial insects such as ants or termites, which are complex societies. In comparison, cockroaches of the species Periplaneta americana have (as far as we know) no division of labor. During the night, each individual of this species searches for food and during the day, the individuals are at rest. While the first activity is solitary, the second one is collective and implies interactions between individuals. Moreover, resting often happens in shelters that provide protection against predators and whose selection depends on their shape and/or their physical characteristics such as the level of darkness or the temperature.

The aim of the study was to look at the influence of the shape of the shelters and of the sexual composition of groups of individual cockroachesin the decision-making outcome, and to highlight the interactions at work. Despite their less sophisticated modes of communication, our objective was to demonstrate that some combinations of environmental and group-related factors could lead to different collective behaviors that are reminiscent to those observed in eusocial insects.

To do so, we performed lab experiments in which three different group compositions were faced with three different environments. Groups either constituted of 16 males, of 16 females or of 8 males and 8 females. As for the environments, the three different groups had to choose between two identical horizontal shelters where individuals can only settle on the floor of the shelters, two identical vertical ones where cockroaches can settle on the walls and the floor, or one vertical and one horizontal shelter.

Experimental set-up consisting of an arena and two dark shelters (a) along with an example of organization within a vertical (b) and a horizontal (c) shelter.

For the nine conditions we showed that the sheltering behavior implies different levels of interactions between individuals and therefore different levels of collective choices depending on the different group compositions tested. In particular, for the symmetrical geometrical conditions (two vertical and two horizontal shelters), the social inter-attraction between individuals in homogenous groups of males are weaker than the ones in homogenous groups of females or in heterogenous groups of males and females. Formulated differently, males have difficulty reaching consensus (all individuals within the same shelter), which is not the case for the groups of females or mixed-groups.

While it is known that these insects prefer to stand vertically, we expected to observe different collective choices between the two symmetrical (two horizontal or two vertical shelters) conditions, but we didn’t. Yet, in the asymmetrical case (one horizontal vs one vertical shelter), the choice towards the vertical shelter was clear for the three group compositions, although the homogenous groups of males and of females had a weaker selection than the mixed groups of males and females. This result may sound puzzling considering the results obtained for the symmetrical conditions, but could be explained by the fact that homogenous populations of males, while having weaker social interattractions between them (as compared to females), are counterbalanced by a higher preference for the vertical shelter. Conversely, females have stronger interattractions between them and a lower individual preference for the vertical shelter. As for the mixed groups, the strong male-female interattractions coupled with the vertical position preference for the males led to a stronger selection of the vertical shelter as compared to the homogenous groups.

Finally, in terms of internal organization within the vertical shelters, no sexual segregation was found to be at work. But we showed that the tendency to stand in the vertical part of the shelter is amplified with the sheltered population for groups of females and for mixed groups but is independent for groups of males.

The results obtained thanks to experiments in a simple device show that the coupling between individual responses to the environmental heterogeneities and the network of interactions between individuals can lead to a diversity of responses. While they contribute also to our understanding of how individuals of Periplaneta americana are interacting and how they collectively choose their resting place, the genericity of the mechanisms implied lead to the conviction that the phenomena presented are likely to be present in species presenting the same modes of organization.

Interview with a social insect scientist: Katja Kwaku

You can read Katja’s recent research article about leaf transfer behaviour in Atta cephalotes here.

IS: Who are you, and what do you do?

My name is Katja Kwaku and I am a Master’s student in the Biology department of Tufts University. I’m an ecologist; I’ve worked on a variety of projects, but I’m generally interested in behavioral ecology and global change biology.

IS: How did you develop an interest in your research?

I’ve been fascinated by animals and their behavior since I was little, but I only really became interested in social insects and leafcutter ants in particular in 2019 when I worked as an educator at the Montshire Museum of Science in Vermont. The Montshire has a colony of honey bees and a colony of leafcutter ants. The leafcutter ants constituted one of the museum’s most popular exhibits and visitors of all ages always asked great questions. Sometimes, I didn’t know the answer to a question, and moments like these inspired me to delve into the primary literature and start researching leafcutter ants.

Social insect researcher Katja Kwaku.

IS: What is your favorite social insect, and why?

Clearly, I am biased, but I have to go with leafcutter ants. There are so many strong interspecific interactions at play! Leafcutter ants have a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with the fungus they cultivate in their underground nests, they rely on bacteria in many ways to mediate this ant-fungus interaction, and they are voracious herbivores of many tree species. Also, they’re just so adorable when they’re carrying leaf fragments.

IS: What is the best moment/discovery in your research so far? What made it so memorable?

I’m relatively new to research, but I would say the best moment so far was witnessing leafcutter ants transfer leaf fragments to one another for the first time. My classmates and I had spent several months reading articles about leaf transfer and had finally travelled from Boston to Costa Rica to do a project about it, so it was such a relief seeing leaf transfer with my own eyes and knowing that the entire basis of our project wouldn’t fall through. It was also really exciting to see leafcutter ants transfer fragments directly to one another on tree trunks because leaf transfer in that context, to my knowledge, has not been explicitly documented before.

IS: Do you teach or do outreach/science communication? How do you incorporate your research into these areas?

Yes! I am currently a teaching assistant and have served as an educator at various science museums in the past. I love highlighting the connections between my research and the material I’m teaching, even if they’re not directly related, because it shows how everything in science is connected and relays why I’m excited to teach the material and why I think it’s important.

Leafcutter ants on their foraging trail. Photo: Katja Kwaku

IS: What do you think are some of the important current questions in social insect research, and what’s essential for future research?

Some important research questions involve understanding how insects use specific cues to drive foraging decisions and communication. Understanding the mechanisms behind fundamental behaviors will give insight into how to best conserve insect species and associated ecosystem services such as pollination and decomposition.

IS: What research questions generate the biggest debate in social insect research at the moment?

One topic of debate relevant to social insect research is whether or not global insect decline or the “insect apocalypse” is actually happening. There is evidence of insect population declines in many areas, but there are so few insect monitoring programs around the world that we run into the issue of having insufficient data to make a generalized conclusive statement about it.

IS: What is the last book you read? Would you recommend it? Why or why not?

The last book I read was Silent Sparks: The Wonderous World of Fireflies by Tufts professor Sara Lewis. I would recommend it because it’s scientific in content but written like a novel, so it’s an interesting and easy read!

Katja Kwaku and her co-author Elena Gonick observing leafcutter ants in Costa Rica.

IS: Outside of science, what are your favorite activities, hobbies, or sports?

I love dancing and doing yoga. I also enjoy making videos with my family and friends.

IS: How do you keep going when things get tough?

Things often don’t go as planned in ecology, so I like to laugh about all the unexpected field work mishaps; they make great stories for later. I also like to reach out to and talk with friends and get exercise when things get tough.

IS: If you were to go live on an uninhabited island and could only bring three things, what would you bring? Why?

I’m the cautious type, so my immediate instinct would be to bring first aid supplies! Otherwise, I would bring a hammock to relax in, binoculars to better enjoy the landscape and wildlife, and a notebook to document my experiences.

Leafcutter ant on an artificial foraging trail. Photo: Katja Kwaku

IS: Who do you think has had the most considerable influence on your science career?

Dr. Colin Orians has been an excellent mentor and professor during my time as a Master’s student. He was always happy to spend lots of time with me discussing science, but ultimately encouraged me to make my own research decisions and let me think for myself.

IS: What advice would you give to someone hoping to be a social insect researcher in the future?

Be patient, since insects don’t always cooperate with experiments right away. Also, if possible, try to send time outdoors observing wildlife outside of dedicated research hours. Your observations will remind you of insects’ magnificence and might inspire your next research question!

IS: What is your favorite place science has taken you?

This is such a hard question since every place is different and has its own positives. One of my favorite places is Long Point, Ontario, where I helped study the endangered Fowler’s toad population. The auditory experience of several frog species chorusing in addition to the sounds of birds and insects at night was enchanting.

Can desert ants take the heat?

by Sean O’Donnell

Based on research for the paper “O’Donnell, S., S. Bulova, V. Caponera, K. Oxman, & I. Giladi. In press. Species differ in worker body size effects on critical thermal limits in seed-harvesting desert ants (Messor ebeninus and M. arenarius). Insectes Sociaux.”

A key puzzle in understanding animal biodiversity is how species with similar ecological needs, sometimes even closely related species, can coexist in a habitat. Why doesn’t competition for shared resources lead to some of the competing species going extinct? If we can understand how species manage to partition their environments, we may gain insights into how high species diversity is maintained. 

In the deserts of the Mediterranean and Middle East, seed-harvesting ants of the genus Messor provide a great study case of this conundrum. Several Messor species often co-occur and all harvest the seeds of desert plants for food. Within nests, Messor ant workers differ widely in body size, and species can further differ in average worker body sizes. Body size affects seed choice, but Messor species still overlap widely on the types of seeds they harvest. Do other factors help reduce interspecific competition?

Deserts are challenging to animal life in many ways, including their famously extreme temperatures. Many deserts, including the Negev, swing from being exceptionally hot to very cold. Small-bodied animals like ants, unable to thermoregulate when working outside their nests, are especially vulnerable to local temperature extremes. 

My lab’s earlier work on army ants (Baudier et al. 2015, 2018) showed that worker body size differences within and among species were associated with the ants’ abilities to withstand temperature extremes. Smaller workers are generally more vulnerable to extremely high temperatures. We hypothesized that Messor species differences in thermal sensitivity, perhaps associated with body size variation, could affect their ability to function in extreme desert temperatures. Differences in thermal biology could influence the species’ relative abilities to harvest seeds under different temperature conditions. A first step in exploring this possibility was to test whether worker ant thermal physiology was related to body size with and between species. We chose two Messor species that co-occur in the northern Negev desert in Israel as research subjects: M. ebeninus and M. arenarius. Messor ebeninus workers range smaller, and M. arenarius workers range larger, but there is some species overlap in worker body sizes.

Ein Avdat National Park provides a stunning setting for the Ben Gurion University Desert Research Center

We collected workers from several nests of each species. Then we brought them to Itamar Giladi’s lab at the Desert Research Center of Ben Gurion University for physiological analysis. We placed single workers in vials in either a digitally-controlled heating or cooling device. By slowly ramping the temperatures up or down and watching for cessation of the ants’ behavioral responses, we determined the maximum or minimum critical temperature for each worker. After the thermal physiology trials, we measured each worker’s head width as an indicator of body size variation. We asked whether worker body size was associated with critical thermal maxima and minima both within and between the species.

The research crew hiking in Ein Avdat Park (left to right: PhD student Karmi Oxman, co-PI Itamar Giladi, research associate Susan Bulova, PhD student Virginia Caponera)

We found that body size was related to maximum thermal tolerance in complex ways. In the larger species, M. arenarius, workers of all sizes were similarly tolerant of high-temperature extremes. In contrast, body size was strongly related to maximum tolerated temperature in M. ebeninus: smaller workers were more thermally sensitive and could not function at temperatures as high as their larger nestmates; larger M. ebeninus overlapped in size with smaller M. arenarius and were similarly thermally tolerant. Worker size showed no relationships with low-temperature tolerance in either species.

Messor ebeninus ant workers returning to their nest from foraging

These results suggest extreme high desert temperatures could differentially affect these two Messor species and their abilities to forage for seeds. We expect smaller M. ebeninus workers to be restricted to foraging at cooler temperatures. Whether the smaller workers only, or the entire foraging force, drop out at higher temperatures remains to be tested (Baudier & O’Donnell 2017). But our results do suggest that temperature effects differ between ant species that share the same habitat and food resource. Species differences in thermal physiology may promote species coexistence.

PI Sean O’Donnell collecting workers from a nest of the ant Messor arenarius
PhD students Karmi Oxman (l) and Virginia Caponera running thermal tolerance trials on Messor ant workers in Itamar Giladi’s lab

References

Baudier KM, D’Amelio CL, Malhotra R, O’Connor MP, O’Donnell S. 2018. Extreme insolation: climatic variation shapes the evolution of thermal tolerance at different scales. American Naturalist 192: 347-359.

Baudier KM, Mudd AE, Erickson SC, O’Donnell S. 2015. Microhabitat and body size effects on heat tolerance: implications for responses to climate change (army ants: Formicidae, Ecitoninae). Journal of Animal Ecology 84: 1322-1330.

Baudier KM, O’Donnell S. 2017. Weak links: How colonies counter the social costs of individual variation in thermal physiology. Current Opinion in Insect Science 22: 85-91.

All images taken by the author.

Interview with a social insect scientist: Robin Southon

You can read Robin’s recent research article about female reproductive skew in Polistes wasps here.

Who are you, and what do you do?

Robin Southon, I did my PhD at the University of Bristol and was most recently a postdoc at University College London in the Sumner Lab. I’m an ethologist at heart, and a little bit fanatical about wasps. My current research focuses on the social evolution of wasps and their potential use in integrated pest management.

How did you develop an interest in your research?

Quite by luck. I was finishing a job in the US and about to return back to the UK but saw an urgent ad for an internship in Panama on Polistes paper wasps – a slight detour. The study site was an abandoned cold war era US military communications station. A surreal setting with nature slowly reclaiming dilapidated concrete structures, but a haven for wasps with hundreds of nests dotted between different rooms. It’s impossible not to fall in love with Polistes, watching a nest is like a soap opera, from the fall of a dominant queen and the ensuing chaos as sisters battle for power. I was hooked and had too many questions, so ended up doing a PhD to try and answer at least some of them.

What is your favorite social insect, and why?

A wasp I’ve not worked with yet and only seen museum specimens of, Polistes gigas. The males are remarkably larger than females and possess enormous mandibles for fighting. Males likely defend a territory around a nest from rivals. It’s rather unique morphology and behaviour in comparison to the leks and aggregations observed in males of other wasps. A hopeful future study.

What is the best moment/discovery in your research so far? What made it so memorable?

The crux of my PhD was whether newly emerged males in the wasp Polistes lanio would help on their natal nests. Male helping behaviour in the Hymenoptera hadn’t received much attention in the literature, so it was a risk to base an entire thesis on. Arriving in Trinidad and locating my first nest with males, I fed one and he chewed up the food and shared it out to his siblings, which was a big relief. Looking back, I was also very lucky to have fed a young male first, as it turned out older males stop feeding nestmates. Repetition is key even in preliminary experiments.

Do you teach or do outreach/science communication? How do you incorporate your research into these areas?

In the past I’ve volunteered for two great organisations: Soapbox Science which promotes women in science and highlights STEM as a career path; Pint of Science in which researchers present a talk about their subject at a local pub or cafe to the general public, quite hectic but fun.

What do you think are some of the important current questions in social insect research, and what’s essential for future research?

There’s an increasing number of publications that demonstrate the effectiveness of ants and social wasps as biocontrol agents. At the moment, discovering methods that promote existing natural populations to target pest species seems an achievable goal. But to unlock the full potential of these agents, in comparison to the domestication of the honeybee, we are a few thousand years behind. We are missing basic questions to advance this goal, such as knowledge on how to successfully maintain and breed such species in captivity.

Another cold war relic home to wasps – Trinidad

What research questions generate the biggest debate in social insect research at the moment?

There has been a clawback on what we should describe as eusocial or a superorganism, and the same applies for terms such as primitively eusocial. In structure, how much difference is there between a Polistes paper wasp colony and a group of cooperatively breeding meerkats? Testing the limits of subordinate to reproductive transitions/successions within tropical totipotent species may be insightful, given that reproduction is not as strictly dictated by seasonality and mate availability in such environments.

What is the last book you read? Would you recommend it? Why or why not?

Forest and Jungle by PT Barnum from 1900; found in an antiques shop. I would not recommend as it’s both very archaic in its scientific and cultural view of the natural world. A window into the past and thankful reminder of changes made.

Outside of science, what are your favorite activities, hobbies, or sports?

I’m a typical naturalist: travelling, hiking, and filling up my home freezer with more insect samples that I promise myself to one day pin.

How do you keep going when things get tough?

Misery loves company – grabbing a coffee with equally frustrated colleagues and listening to and hashing out ideas together has always helped.

If you were to go live on an uninhabited island and could only bring three things, what would you bring? Why? A machete and fire striker for survival, eppendorf tubes with RNAlater/ethanol for when my boss complains about where I’ve disappeared to.

Polybia nest – Trinidad

Who do you think has had the most considerable influence on your science career?

The ‘spark’ happened back in my childhood thanks to my grandfather. He lived out in the countryside and was a bit of an amateur zookeeper: horses, fish, owls, peacocks, attack geese, etc. When I visited, I would sit inside enclosures thinking about why animals behaved in certain ways and the interactions between them. Some things haven’t changed.

What advice would you give to someone hoping to be a social insect researcher in the future?

For undergraduates, reach out to labs that align with your interests. Research assistantships provide opportunities to get valuable experience, which can give you a head start in future postgrad studies. Also, a bee-suit is not necessarily a wasp-suit, Vespula are incredibly good at finding vulnerabilities.

What is your favorite place science has taken you?

Trinidad – astounding nature, excellent food, and an abundance of wasps. I met many people with the attitude of “if it doesn’t bother me, I don’t bother it” when it comes to wasps, and you can find all sorts of different species around the eaves of houses. I don’t know if it truly was an old motto or someone trying to amuse me, but I was once told having wasps around your house is a sign of good fortune, the symbolism being between wasps bringing back forage and people bringing back money to the home.

If you had unlimited funds to conduct whatever research you wanted, where would you go and what would you investigate?

My fantasy answer would be to use a large artificial self-contained biosphere to study the impact of environment on sociality. Actual tests of inclusive fitness are complex, but this would allow genetic and demographic data for each subsequent generation to be sampled for the entire population, whilst manipulating the climate, predation risk, and resource availability. I would hope funding also covers a control-biosphere…

Interview with a social insect scientist: Omar Urquizo

You can read Omar’s recent research article about reproductive and brood-rearing strategies in tree hoppers here.

IS: Who are you, and what do you do?

OU: My name is Omar N. Urquizo. I do research at the Chemical Ecology Laboratory of Universidad San Francisco Xavier in Chuquisaca, Bolivia in the field of the evolution of social insects in contexts of behavioral ecology and their interactions with plants, other insects, or arthropods.

IS: How did you develop an interest in your research?

OU: I felt much curiosity about arthropods in 2013 when I participated in a conference where two investigators presented their work on morphological diversity in bees and treehopper behaviouOU: So, I wanted to investigate and learn more about insect–plant interactions, and I decided to request admission as a student of the Chemical Ecology Laboratory. There, I started supporting research on treehopper vibrational communication in a mating context. I was really surprised because we could listen to signals (substrate-borne signals) that usually are not easy to perceive, thanks to bioacoustic tools. So, I learned about the phenomena of this group; one of them, brood parasitism, was reported in my first study. In treehoppers, there are different social levels during which we can observe awesome behaviours. I believe that we must get to know what we have around us, from the smallest and mimetic individual to the biggest and remarkable individual.

IS: What is your favorite social insect, and why?

OU: My favourite social insects are treehoppers, because within the Membracidae family the species display different strange forms and colours in their pronotum, being cryptic or aposematic depending on the species. But also, this group has peculiar behaviours during vibrational communication during mating, maternal care, and feeding search, which depend on the level of social organization of each species.

IS: What is the best moment/discovery in your research so far? What made it so memorable?

OU: I think that the best moment in my research was data collection because I learned several things about the natural history of Alchisme grossa; however, there are several biggest moments, like when we finally saw genetic results that allow us to open a discussion about intraspecific brood parasitism in treehoppers.

IS: Do you teach or do outreach/science communication? How do you incorporate your research into these areas?

OU: I do not teach nor do outreach formally; however, I always share my knowledge with other students and researchers. I think that science communication is very important for displaying our work at different levels, be it a school, university, or simply individuals who enjoy and are surprised to know new things about nature. I am eager to incorporate my research into an educational video in an entertaining way.

IS: What do you think are some of the important current questions in social insect research, and what’s essential for future research?

OU: I think that an important question is: What are the mechanisms that lead to different levels of social organization, from community levels, through evolutionary or/and ecological contexts, to individual levels, such as physiological processes? I think that if we can understand all social interactions, we can make the best decisions when we face different problems with conservation, pest control, or natural resources.

IS: What research questions generate the biggest debate in social insect research at the moment?

OU: I feel that the research that has generated more intense debate is the evolutionary processes leading to social behaviours. In this area, it is not uncommon to discover new findings that change a way of thinking and strengthens or renews a postulate.

IS: What is the last book you read? Would you recommend it? Why or why not?

OU: In science,I am reading Evolutionary Analysis by F. Scott F, but the last book I read was Communities’ Ecology by F. Jaksic. But also, I was reading Moby Dick by Herman Melville, as recreational reading. I recommend these books because the former contain concepts and research explained in very practical ways, and the last book because it is an interesting study of character within an adventure of pirates and whales.

IS: Outside of science, what are your favorite activities, hobbies, or sports?

OU: My favourite activities outside of science are photography and music. I think they are both ways to capture and express beauty and to demonstrate and communicate your feelings in an artistic way. I also love skating.

IS: How do you keep going when things get tough?

OU: I am a religious person, and my faith and family are my principal support in difficult times; they provide me moments of calm and peace. But also, when things get tough, I tend to remain calm and maintain clarity to act or make the best decision. I also like to go out to the city to attract good vibes.

IS: If you were to go live on an uninhabited island and could only bring three things, what would you bring? Why?

OU: I would take my family (is the most important to me), but if I only have to carry objects, I would carry a radio to communicate with them, a guitar, and a camera.

IS: Who do you think has had the most considerable influence on your science career?

OU: Carlos Pinto, who has been an extraordinary mentor to me. He has taught me that science can be made anywhere – that you just need to believe you can do it.

IS: What advice would you give to someone hoping to be a social insect researcher in the future?

OU: All research is valid, but it is best to work on a problem that really motivates you. And, of course, to put body and soul into your endeavours. In ecological research, observe each trait or behaviour mindfully with utmost patience. The insect world is small, but that makes it more fascinating, since we can analyse many processes. For example, studying large group behaviors is easier with insects than with big animals.

IS: What is your favorite place science has taken you?

OU: Outside Bolivia,I have only travelled to Santiago, Chile through science. There, I met very interesting researchers in many fields of science. Within Bolivia, several study trips have taken me to spectacular places.

IS: If you had unlimited funds to conduct whatever research you wanted, where would you go and what would you investigate?

OU: If I had unlimited funds, I would create a strong research university department in Sucre, Bolivia working in different areas of ecology. Within it, I would like to work in molecular ecology and evolution with native bees to describe interactions between species and other social behaviours.

Interview with a social insect scientist: Juliane Lopes

You can read Juliane’s recent research article on the influence of post-flight on queens’ survival and productivity in leaf-cutter ants here.

IS: Who are you, and what do you do?

JL: I’m Juliane Lopes, a biologist. I am a researcher and professor at the Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Brazil. I’m part of the Post-Graduation Program in Biodiversity and Nature Conservation at the same university.

IS: How did you develop an interest in your research?

JL: I started to study ants in 1997 in my master’s degree, but even before that, I was always interested in insect behavior.

IS: What is your favorite social insect, and why?

JL: The ants. Their complex organization level is amazing. I always find them doing stuff that I would never think they could. Recently, I found a paper that described ants basking in the sunlight.

IS: What is the best moment/discovery in your research so far? What made it so memorable?

JL: Every research moment is memorable. Each student that reaches their objective of the final thesis is a victory and gives me great satisfaction. I’m not able to choose one of them.

IS: Do you teach or do outreach/science communication? How do you incorporate your research into these areas?

JL: Yes, the divulgation of science is very important and I, along with my team, always work in this direction. We always make expositions of laboratory colonies in schools and science fairs. This contact is very pleasant, and every time at least one person has a curiosity about ants. When you answer new questions that arise in their minds, they are always surprised about the cooperation and communication in the ant colonies. We also have an Instagram profile, @mirmecolab.ufjf (follow us!!), in which we publish at least two posts weekly. Sometimes the posts are about ants, other times about biology in general or opportunities for biology students.

IS: What do you think are some of the important current questions in social insect research, and what’s essential for future research?

JL: Understanding the mechanisms that drive their organization is THE question for me. I think that their systems can be cleverly used as models to improve our society. Integrating and collaborating with researchers of other disciplines, such as mathematics, physics, and art, will broaden the applications of studies about social insects.

IS: What research questions generate the biggest debate in social insect research at the moment?

JL: I think that a relevant theme is the evolutionary paths of sociality in these insects; there are always new discoveries on this topic.

IS: What is the last book you read? Would you recommend it? Why or why not?

JL: I haven’t been able to finish a book for some time, as there are always too many articles to read or corrections to make, reunions to attend, classes to prepare, and dogs to care for, among many other things. For now, I am trying to finish two books, Thus Spoke Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche, and Game Theory and Animal Behaviour edited by Lee Dugatkin and Hudson Kern Reeve.

IS: Outside of science, what are your favorite activities, hobbies, or sports?

JL: I love to play music and care for my dogs, plants, sons, daughter, and parents.

IS: How do you keep going when things get tough?

JL: I go to the countryside and take a breath of fresh air.

IS: If you were to go live on an uninhabited island and could only bring three things, what would you bring? Why?

JL: Antiallergic, because I’m allergic to insects, especially wasps, bees, and ants (!!!), some colored markers to paint ants to help me to observe them, and a ukulele.

IS: Who do you think has had the most considerable influence on your science career?

JL: Certainly my advisor Dr. Luiz Carlos Forti, who taught me how to care about ants, about their ecological function, how to apply basic behavior research to improve control methods, and how to advise my own students.

IS: What advice would you give to someone hoping to be a social insect researcher in the future?

JL: Know that a lot of people will question the importance of what you are doing. Having a fast and complete response to this question is essential to putting value in our research. Also, have the patience to mark ants, repeat the same experiment several times, and know that insects can have a bad mood and won’t always do what you want them to do.

IS: What is your favorite place science has taken you?

JL: Toulouse in France where I spent my postdoc, and Trinidad-Tobago for a talk in a symposium. I had never expected I would go there. Such a beautiful place.

IS: If you had unlimited funds to conduct whatever research you wanted, where would you go and what would you investigate?

JL: I would go to space and investigate how a colony might adapt to changes in gravity and atmosphere.

Interview with a social insect scientist: Jenny Jandt

You can read Jenny’s recent research article on differences in yellowjacket colony-level aggression over time and across contexts here.

That’s a big one! Jenny showing a PERFECT Vespula nest excavation. She later discovered that the bottom half was just paper – presumably to be repurposed into lower layers of brood comb. This colony is referred to as V3 in the Jandt et al. 2020 Insectes Sociaux paper.

IS: Who are you, and what do you do?

JJ: My name is Jenny Jandt. I’m a Senior Lecturer (equivalent to an Assistant Professor in the US) at the University of Otago, New Zealand. I study behavioural ecology and evolutionary biology of social insect colonies.

Waiting for directions. When Jenny is searching for wasp nests, sometimes she finds nectar feeders full of sugar water (for birds) that are being dominated by wasps. Jenny waits until a wasp is full of sugar and watches as she flies away. Jenny uses the trajectory of the wasp’s flight to track the nest.

IS: How did you develop an interest in your research?

JJ: I fell in love with social insects in 2000 when I did a summer study abroad in Costa Rica. I discovered how I could be in a most beautiful place in the world and my study organisms would come to me! I didn’t have to keep them locked up in a lab (which I would do later anyway) or spend all of my time searching for footprints or poo (both of which I studied in some way with social insects eventually too).

While working with many colonies of bumble bees for my Ph.D. and many more colonies of paper wasp for my postdoc, I thought a lot about the differences among colonies. Why did some colonies grow so fast? Why did some colonies refuse to cooperate in the experiment I set up for them? Were some colonies actually more likely to sting or attack me?

When I started my lab in NZ, I focused on developing research to investigate factors that influence colony differences in bumble bees, wasps, and ants. I’m still fascinated by the individuals, but now I’m focused on understanding how those individual differences interact to create a robust colony phenotype. And I get to study them in another most beautiful place in the world.

Everyone’s a critic. Occasionally, the workers like to double-check the camera settings.

IS: What is your favorite social insect, and why?

JJ: My favorite is probably the German yellowjacket. I think the yellow and black color patterns are striking and beautiful, and I love photographing them on flowers and leaves. They have a ferocity when defending their nest, and I respect that. They were also the first social insect I worked with. As a Master’s student, I studied their foraging behavior, but also helped design a box where I could watch them interact with each other inside the nest. There’s so much more to them than just their sting.

I also fell in love with Halictid bees at some point. I love their brilliant colors, I love that they land on my skin and try to drink sweat, and I love that they pretend they have a powerful sting. It’s also pretty fun to consider that these bright green bees that carry bellies of yellow pollen are obviously Green Bay Packer fans too.

I never imagined I would include an ant on this list, but I can’t leave out the bullet ant. I’ve never been stung by these brilliant beasts, but I did have an opportunity to study their foraging behavior in Costa Rica one summer. I got some video of these visual predators standing next to a trail of leaf-cutting ants and picking foragers off one by one. I even saw one ant catch a bee in mid-air! Luckily, the ant was so excited and shocked by her success that she forgot how to get home and walked back and forth often enough for me to capture an exceptional photo of her with her prize. I found a way to publish that photo with the study we were doing on their foraging behavior.

A Vespula queen visits a Grevillea flower. Neither are native to NZ, but both are pretty.

IS: What is the best moment/discovery in your research so far? What made it so memorable?

JJ: I remember the day that I realized a hypothesis I was testing for my Master’s work, that yellowjackets leave footprints at a food site to attract conspecifics, was not going to be supported. I remember telling other students in the lab, who all recommended that if I wanted to convince my advisor (who held a firm view that the hypothesis was true), I needed to have strong evidence. So I designed the project in a way that made it absolutely clear that yellowjackets do not leave footprints at the food site. I brought him the evidence, and I was so nervous. Who was I to challenge my advisor? But he listened to my explanation and said “ok.” I felt fireworks going off in my head! My first publication was a null result, reported in the title “Vespula germanica foragers do not scent-mark carbohydrate food sites.”

I’ve had the opportunity to work on some really neat projects over the years (sometimes based on really cool hypotheses that were even supported!), but that one was memorable because I was young, very new to the field, I challenged an expert in the field, and I presented the evidence in a convincing way. I earned the confidence that I built that day, and I’ve carried that win with me ever since.

Ancistrocerus gazelle visits a daisy. Neither are native to NZ, but the wasp is a solitary Eumenid, suggesting the soil properties and floral rewards of Jenny’s garden are adequate to support the European tube wasp and her nest!

IS: Do you teach or do outreach/science communication? How do you incorporate your research into these areas?

JJ: I teach behavioral ecology and insect neuroecology. I’m very fortunate to work at a university where I can teach on topics that overlap with my research interests. Whenever possible, I bring examples of my research to my lectures – I love sharing photos and videos of my bees and wasps. Insect neuroecology is slightly out of my area of expertise, so I’ve been reading a lot of current literature for the class, and then incorporating lecture content into some of my research proposals.

I love bringing my bees (especially when they have number tags) and ants to school groups or outreach events. Most people have never seen a bumble bee colony, and in NZ, very few people have seen ants! I find ways to bring wasps too, with posters and videos, pinned specimens, and nest paper/comb. I love explaining how each strip of color represents a single individual’s foraging trip for pulp. Sometimes we write on the paper too.

I use social media for outreach, as well. I’ve begun experimenting with my “yarden” to provide natural pesticide-free space for birds and invertebrates, and of course, to attract bees and wasps. I try to record and share observations of visitors to the yard on Facebook, Twitter, and iNaturalist.

IS: What do you think are some of the important current questions in social insect research, and what’s essential for future research?

JJ: There is some really neat research being conducted on colony interactions and social interactions affecting individual development/phenotype. I think combining these fields to investigate how changes to individual gene expression can influence colony-level phenotype would be an awesome area for future research.

IS: What research questions generate the biggest debate in social insect research at the moment?

JJ: One area that I’m involved with concerns “saving the bees.” What do we mean when we say we want to save the bees? Scientists and media have done an exceptional job of convincing the general public that bees need to be saved. However, there are some groups that argue honey bees should not be a focus of these efforts because they are domesticated and managed. Instead, native or solitary bees deserve the most attention, as they can be more susceptible to pesticides and reduction in floral rewards. This group also includes folks that would like to change the narrative to saving insect diversity in general. On the other side of the debate, honey bees are the primary group of bees that require attention.

I don’t study or manage honey bee colonies. I build my yard to promote bumble bees (also not native to NZ, but they’re a good indicator species of soil health), native solitary bees, and natural predators (wasps, beetles, etc.). If honey bees come from someone else’s managed hive to my yard for a sip of nectar or a bit of pollen, that’s fine. If I find more non-Apis bees foraging in my yard, though, that’s a big win. I encourage folks to plant more flowers and keep pesticides out of the soil, as those two things can help honey bees and everything else.

IS: What is the last book you read? Would you recommend it? Why or why not?

JJ: Eek! I read a lot. Here are a few of the recents from each category:

Popular Science: I just finished Justin Schmidt’s “The Sting of the Wild.” I would definitely recommend this book. If you’ve ever had the opportunity to meet Justin, you can hear his voice as he tells these incredible stories of the lengths he went through to collect venom, and the number and variety of attempts he made to tape up his bee suit to minimize stings. It is entertaining, informative, and full of stinging insect diversity.

Science Fiction/Fantasy: I love books with dragons, and am currently reading the Anne McAffrey series: “Dragonriders of Pern.” I just started the second book. It’s complex, but brilliant. I also have to give a shout out to the Robin Hobb series “The Rain Wild Chronicles.” One of the dragons is a main character, so at times you get to see the world from her perspective. 

Comic Books/Graphic Novels: There are a couple of very cool Harley Quinn origin series that have come out (“Harleen” and “Joker/Harley”). They’re printed under “DC/Black Label”. I also finally finished “The Walking Dead: Compendium 1”. I immediately ordered Compendium 2. If you’re a fan of the show, the comic series is equally as awesome, but the storyline diverges just enough to make it worthwhile to read.

IS: Outside of science, what are your favorite activities, hobbies, or sports?

JJ: I love my garden (maybe that’s already obvious). I’ve never been a birder, but now I can recognize the calls of 4-5 species of birds that visit my yard. I love taking photos of bees, wasps, and other insects on flowers or crawling around the dirt.

I’m also a huge comic book nerd. Marvel does an exceptional job of showing 3-dimensional characters with a diversity of backgrounds while trying to get the science right in their universe (aside from, of course, Ant-Man insisting all of his ants, and now BEES, are male. Don’t worry – I’ve written Marvel a letter on the topic. I’m still waiting on the response). They also have a number of young women scientists with their own titles; a few examples include: The Unstoppable Wasp (Nadia, I named my cat after her) is the daughter of the late Hank Pym, the adopted daughter of Janet van Dyne (the original Wasp), and a genius. She started “G.I.R.L: Girls in Research Labs”, and she invited a diverse team of other young women geniuses to work in the lab with her to help save the world. And of course, she shrinks down to the size of a wasp and kicks a**. At the end of each issue of Unstoppable Wasp, they include an interview with a woman in S.T.E.M., and it’s so neat to read their stories. Shuri is another great series (hopefully you’ve heard of her from the Black Panther films). Her character is given some really powerful (physically and mentally) story arcs, but overall, she’s brilliant, and it’s amazing to watch her save the world too.

IS: How do you keep going when things get tough?

JJ: Some days I don’t. On those days, if I can, I just have to stop everything and give myself space to just take a break. If I can’t stop, I try to wrap up everything that needs to be done that day as quickly as possible, then I stop checking emails and I go home and tune out the world.

I regularly reach out to mentors, my mom, and my friends, especially when things get tough. There are few things better than when my mentors reassure me that I’m not alone in how I feel, and we find ways to power through. My mom and friends are good listeners, and good for a laugh, because sometimes powering through isn’t the answer, you just need a distraction.

IS: If you were to go live on an uninhabited island and could only bring three things, what would you bring? Why?

  1. Water filter – I know there are ways to filter water naturally, but I’d probably get really sick or dehydrated before I figured them out.
  2. My phone – to take photographs and notes (no need for WiFi, I would just need a lot of storage). I would make sure a bunch of books and comics were pre-loaded on there too. Of course, the phone itself would need to be solar-powered, because I’m not wasting option 3 on a charger. Nor am I wasting two options on a pen and paper.
  3. My bee/wasp suit. It has a ton of pockets (for carrying my phone and water filter), it’ll protect from UV, and will be useful when digging into wild honey bee and wasp colonies for some protein and honey. 

IS: Who do you think has had the most considerable influence on your science career?

JJ: Just like insects and books, it’s hard to pick just one person. My parents supported me as I took a non-traditional career path, which resulted in me being in grad school for what felt like forever and then moving to the other side of the world. My grad school and postdoc advisors shared their enthusiasm about science but challenged me to figure things out on my own. They are still there if and when I need advice, guidance, or just someone to run ideas by.

IS: What advice would you give to someone hoping to be a social insect researcher in the future?

JJ: There is a reason you want to be a social insect researcher, and it’s probably that you think social insects are the coolest things you’ve ever heard of/witnessed/researched. Hold on to that enthusiasm and interest. It will keep you going during the tough times when you can’t remember why you pursued a career in research, and it will bring people joy to see you smile about the thing you love.

IS: What is your favorite place science has taken you?

JJ: Here, to New Zealand. I’ve had the opportunity to travel to a lot of places for research and conferences, but I call New Zealand my home, and this place is incredible. I’m so lucky to have this life.

IS: If you had unlimited funds to conduct whatever research you wanted, where would you go and what would you investigate?

JJ: I would love to investigate colony aggression in tropical Polistine (swarm founding) wasps. I’ve heard some terrifying stories of being chased by a swarm of angry wasps in the tropics, and I think it would be neat to quantify those experiences.

Interview with a social insect scientist: Alessandro Cini

You can read Alessandro’s recent research article on behavioral and neurogenomic responses of host workers to social parasite invasion in a social insect here.

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IS: Who are you, and what do you do?

AC: I am a Research Fellow at the University College London in the research group led by Seirian Sumner, which is part of the stimulating environment of CBER (Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research). I am an ethologist, and I am particularly interested in understanding the diversity and evolution of two cornerstones of insect societies: communication and social behaviour.

IS: How did you develop an interest in your research?

AC: I guess two ingredients were (and still are) crucial: stimulating readings and inspiring colleagues! The former inspired my curiosity, and the latter showed me how to satisfy it. Most of these colleagues are now close friends and continue having a great influence on my scientific adventure.

IS: What is the best moment/discovery in your research so far? What made it so memorable?

AC: Probably when I first listened in real-time to the amplification of substrate-borne vibrations on a paper-wasp nest. In addition to chemical and visual stimuli, wasps also communicate through the vibrations they produce on the nest thanks to specific oscillatory behaviours. It is possible to amplify these vibrations and make them audible. One can thus perceive what is usually forbidden to our senses, and basically ‘feel’ the vibrational landscape of a colony. This somehow allows us to get close to the umwelt (meaning here the world as perceived by a living organism) of animals that are separated from us by hundreds of millions of years of evolution. Even more exciting was to be able to play back the vibrations of a specific behaviour made by adult wasps and see that the larvae responded to the signal; being able to (sort of) talk with another non-human animal is the dream of every ethologist, I believe! A sort of Ring of Solomon in the Konrad Lorenz perspective!

IS: Do you teach or do outreach/science communication? How do you incorporate your research into these areas?

AC: I have been teaching an international course on social insects for several years, and I frequently participate in science communication events. I like using my research to convey the idea that the world around us, as well as the scientific process that allows us to better understand it, are much more complex than usually reported in textbooks and science communication media. In the era of social networks, ideas and knowledge are often conveyed through simple marketing-style messages. I believe we need to take our time to learn and explain the complexity and intricacy of the natural world. After all, such complexity is its charm.

IS: What do you think are some of the important current questions in social insect research, and what’s essential for future research?

AC: I am surely biased by my own interests! I would say that one of the most important questions is to understand the extent of phenotypic plasticity for many crucial traits of insect societies, from life-history traits to behavioural aspects. The more we study, the more we understand that many traits are hugely plastic: understanding the causes and consequences of such plasticity is interesting per se, but also important in the era of rapid changes we are living in, the Anthropocene. On the other side, we are also experiencing a very technological era, and we should take advantage of this when studying social insects. In this regard, I think that automated recognition of behavioural patterns will be essential in the near future for obtaining massive amounts of one of the most difficult and time-consuming phenotypes to observe in social insects: behaviour! I hope in a few years we will be talking regularly about another ‘omics’: ethomics!

IS: What research questions generate the biggest debate in social insect research at the moment?

AC: In my own domain (communication and social behaviour of social wasps), a very debated topic during the last 15 years or so has been the use of facial marks as communication signals in paper wasps! Many Polistes wasp species have colour marks on their head, which influence the social behaviour of conspecifics. The role, significance, and evolution of these facial marks have been strongly debated, and I believe we are still far from having a complete picture (despite the abundance of very good research!). It is one of those cases where what appears as a very simple textbook example indeed reveals fascinating and intricate complexity at a closer look!

IS: What is the last book you read? Would you recommend it? Why or why not?

AC: I enjoyed reading The Vulgar Wasp: The Story of a Ruthless Invader and Ingenious Predator by Phil Lester very much. A captivating account on the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, which provides an insightful perspective on one of the most incredible biological invasions of recent times.

IS: Who do you think has had the most considerable influence on your science career?

AC: In the first place, the essential substrate was surely provided by my family, who, since childhood, stimulated my curiosity and, later on, supported my passion for science. Among the numerous catalysts that acted on this substrate, I would probably name Stephen Jay Gould, whose essays deeply influenced me. Thanks to a smart high-school science teacher, I discovered his work very early. I especially loved his writing style and its ability to begin a story by looking at the smallest details to reach the big picture, and drag you back to the details again (that you now see under a completely different perspective)!

IS: What advice would you give to someone hoping to be a social insect researcher in the future?

AC: Maybe it’s a bit of a cliché, but I would suggest focusing, as the main goal of one’s efforts, on what is interesting to understand and discover, instead of yielding to what pays off more in term of publications and career! I am still hoping for an increased slow-science attitude and for less publish or perish imperatives!

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IS: What is your favorite place science has taken you?

AC: Science has taken me to wonderful places, such as the humid tropical forests of Malaysia, where the tiny and elegant hover-wasps nest in huge aggregations of thousands of colonies, as well as the colourful blooming fields of uninhabited Mediterranean islands. I admit, however, that a particularly meaningful place for me is represented by the highlands of the Sibillini Mountains in Central Italy, which I discovered thanks to the Social Insect Research Group in Florence, especially thanks to my former Ph.D. supervisor Rita Cervo. This wonderful landscape, unfortunately hit several times by dramatic earthquakes, is incredibly rich in endemic fauna and flora. For several years, every spring, we have climbed the slopes of these mountains to study an obligate social parasite (Polistes sulcifer) that overwinters at high altitude under the rocks! On the first sunny days of spring, it is fascinating to see these wasps leaving their winter refuges and flying down to the lowlands, where a few weeks later, they will usurp host colonies, thanks to both violent fights and sophisticated deception strategies.

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IS: If you had unlimited funds to conduct whatever research you wanted, where would you go and what would you investigate?

AC: Maybe influenced by the current restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, my mind immediately thinks about travelling! With unlimited funds, I would start wandering across the distribution ranges of several social insect species (especially the most “primitive” ones) to describe and compare the geographic variation in communication strategies and social behaviour. This would not be just an amusing job; it would be a necessary step to observe the diversity of behavioural traits and start digging into the evolution of phenotypic diversity.